TLS Setup With Apache2#


The very same concept as descriped here can be used for many applications using openssl as crypto-backend. The concept mostly boils down to: replace (secret) key-file with PKCS#11 URL referencing a key on a security token (Nitrokey)


  • ensure that the apache2 version is at least 2.4.42 for proper mod_ssl support

  • activate mod_ssl using a2enmod ssl, if not already done

  • additionally openssl is needed and libengine-pkcs11-openssl see PKCS#11 URL

Configure Apache2 to Use a Security Key#

Basically the only thing to do is replace SSLCertificateFile with the proper PKCS#11 URL and delete any other references to keys or certificates. E.g., SSLCertificateKeyFile is not needed anymore.

An example directive might look like this:

SSLCertificateFile   "pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;;serial=DENK0123123;token=UserPIN%20%28SmartCard-HSM%29;id%01"

The proper PKCS#11 URL can be extracted as documented in PKCS#11 URL Generation

Be sure to place the directive inside a VirtualHost configuration.

Provide PIN During Apache2 Startup#

Using the previously described method Apache2 will ask on every startup for the User-PIN, thus basically declining batch startup. Apache2 provides another directive to provide the PIN during startup.

SSLPassPhraseDialog     "|/bin/echo 123456"

Apache2 expects an executable after |, which will be executed during startup and it’s output (trailing newline is expected) will be used as PIN. Obviously arbitrary complex PIN retrieval methods can be implemented using this approach. Although here a trivial example has been chosen to just echo the PIN during startup.

Further SSLPassPhraseDialog is a global directive, thus has to be placed in the global configuration scope in Apache2.


This shown example is not a secure mechanism to pass your PIN, as it will be written in plain-text inside your configuration

See the Apache2 mod_ssl documentation for more details on this feature.

Complete Apache2 Config Example#

A complete Apache2 (VirtualHost) config snippet might look like this:

<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
  SSLPassPhraseDialog     "|/bin/echo 123456"
  <VirtualHost _default_:443>
     ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost

     DocumentRoot /var/www/html

     ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
     CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined

     SSLEngine on

     SSLCertificateFile      "pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;;serial=DENK0105076;token=UserPIN%20%28SmartCard-HSM%29"

     #SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key

     <FilesMatch "\.(cgi|shtml|phtml|php)$">
                     SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
     <Directory /usr/lib/cgi-bin>
                     SSLOptions +StdEnvVars