Creare un’autorità di certificazione#

(Nitrokey Pro 2 - Linux)

Questo articolo vi mostra come configurare la vostra autorità di certificazione privata supportata da un HSM Nitrokey. Questa autorità di certificazione non ha automazione e non è realmente scalabile. Si può fare riferimento ad altri progetti open source per l’automazione e la scalabilità.

Scegliere gli algoritmi crittografici#

Presumo che siate paranoici come me, quindi userò il seguente comando per generare le chiavi private:

pkcs11-tool -l --keypairgen --key-type EC:secp384r1 --label root

Ma, se siete meno paranoici di me, potete tranquillamente scegliere le seguenti opzioni:

pkcs11-tool -l --keypairgen --key-type EC:secp256r1 --label root
pkcs11-tool -l --keypairgen --key-type rsa:4096 --label root

Allo stesso modo, userò l’algoritmo sha512 in tutto questo articolo, ma sha256 può essere tranquillamente usato.

Prepararsi a iniziare#

Per cominciare, è necessario scegliere una directory per memorizzare il vostro CA.

pki_dir=/opt/certificate-authority
mkdir $pki_dir
cd $pki_dir
mkdir certs config crl newcerts intermediate intermediate/certs intermediate/crl intermediate/csr intermediate/newcerts
touch index.txt intermediate/index.txt
cd config

Installare gli strumenti necessari:

# Arch Linux
pacman -S community/opensc community/libp11

# Ubuntu
sudo apt-get install opensc gnutls-bin

Per Windows scaricate le versioni ufficiali ` di OpenSC <https://github.com/OpenSC/OpenSC/releases>`_ e assicuratevi di installare p11tool come descritto. Usando la PowerShell la maggior parte dei comandi dovrebbe essere identica, purché entrambi gli strumenti e i loro binari siano all’interno del vostro PATH.

Creare l’autorità di certificazione radice#

Iniziamo generando la chiave privata per l’autorità di certificazione direttamente sull’HSM Nitrokey. Questo ci permette di utilizzare la chiave privata in futuro, ma non di accedervi.

# Generate private key on HSM
$ pkcs11-tool -l --keypairgen --key-type EC:secp384r1 --label root
Using slot 0 with a present token (0x0)
Logging in to "SmartCard-HSM (UserPIN)".
Please enter User PIN:
Key pair generated:
Private Key Object; EC
  label:      root
  ID:         e0161cc8b6f5d66ac6835ecdecb623fc0506a675
  Usage:      sign, derive
  Access:     none
Public Key Object; EC  EC_POINT 384 bits
  EC_POINT:   046104c1e7b40e1ef9e5d47399aeeda695026c9eb626462059eb696e8f2b647b42d64ac3b7fc7a5b31aa3edf9bce46b2cdcf8e5d190b13601d3d14ffb119c8cf60033c6b78ba579b85113ca536eef1cf85ba418ff0110a56ec881b329e0562e090a3e7
  EC_PARAMS:  06052b81040022
  label:      root
  ID:         e0161cc8b6f5d66ac6835ecdecb623fc0506a675
  Usage:      verify, derive
  Access:     none

Nota il numero ID (e0161cc8b6f5d66ac6835ecdecb623fc0506a675), ci servirà più tardi.

Se hai bisogno dell’ID in futuro, puoi elencare le chiavi sul Nitrokey HSM:

pkcs11-tool -O

Dobbiamo creare un file di configurazione per generare un certificato pubblico autofirmato.

vim create_root_cert.ini

Compilate le informazioni di richiesta in <parentesi angolari> con le informazioni per il vostro CA.

[ ca ]
# `man ca`
default_ca = CA_default

[ CA_default ]
# Directory and file locations.
dir               = /opt/certificate-authority
certs             = $dir/certs
crl_dir           = $dir/crl
new_certs_dir     = $dir/newcerts
database          = $dir/index.txt
serial            = $dir/serial

# SHA-1 is deprecated, so use SHA-2 instead.
default_md        = sha512

name_opt          = ca_default
cert_opt          = ca_default
default_days      = 375
preserve          = no
policy            = policy_strict

[ policy_strict ]
# The root CA should only sign intermediate certificates that match.
# See the POLICY FORMAT section of `man ca`.
countryName             = match
stateOrProvinceName     = match
organizationName        = match
organizationalUnitName  = optional
commonName              = supplied
emailAddress            = optional

[ req ]
# Options for the `req` tool (`man req`).
default_bits        = 4096
distinguished_name  = req_distinguished_name
string_mask         = utf8only
prompt              = no

# SHA-1 is deprecated, so use SHA-2 instead.
default_md          = sha512

[ req_distinguished_name ]
C                   = <two lettter country>
ST                  = <full state name>
O                   = <your company>
OU                  = <your company> Certificate Authority
CN                  = <your company> Root CA

[ v3_ca ]
# Extensions for a typical CA (`man x509v3_config`).
subjectKeyIdentifier = hash
authorityKeyIdentifier = keyid:always,issuer
basicConstraints = critical, CA:true
keyUsage = critical, digitalSignature, cRLSign, keyCertSign

Generare il certificato pubblico autofirmato dalla chiave privata. Usa il valore id della chiave privata di prima.

$ openssl req -config create_root_cert.ini -engine pkcs11 -keyform engine -key e0161cc8b6f5d66ac6835ecdecb623fc0506a675 -new -x509 -days 3650 -sha512 -extensions v3_ca -out ../certs/root.crt
engine "pkcs11" set.
Enter PKCS#11 token PIN for SmartCard-HSM (UserPIN):

Verificare che il certificato di root sia stato generato correttamente. Verificare che Signature-Algorithm corrisponda sopra e sotto. Verificate che Issuer e Subject corrispondano, tutti i certificati di root sono autofirmati. Verificate che Key Usage corrisponda a quello che c’era nelle informazioni v3_ca nel nostro file di configurazione.

$ openssl x509 -noout -text -in ../certs/root.crt
Certificate:
    Data:
        Version: 3 (0x2)
        Serial Number:
            25:ac:e1:36:75:67:26:1d:bb:96:4b:84:c2:2d:83:25:7b:cc:e0:e5
        Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA512
        Issuer: C = US, ST = My State, O = My Company, OU = My Company Certificate Authority, CN = My Company Root CA
        Validity
            Not Before: Aug 18 20:13:20 2020 GMT
            Not After : Aug 16 20:13:20 2030 GMT
        Subject: C = US, ST = My State, O = My Company, OU = My Company Certificate Authority, CN = My Company Root CA
        Subject Public Key Info:
            Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey
                Public-Key: (384 bit)
                pub:
                    04:c1:e7:b4:0e:1e:f9:e5:d4:73:99:ae:ed:a6:95:
                    02:6c:9e:b6:26:46:20:59:eb:69:6e:8f:2b:64:7b:
                    42:d6:4a:c3:b7:fc:7a:5b:31:aa:3e:df:9b:ce:46:
                    b2:cd:cf:8e:5d:19:0b:13:60:1d:3d:14:ff:b1:19:
                    c8:cf:60:03:3c:6b:78:ba:57:9b:85:11:3c:a5:36:
                    ee:f1:cf:85:ba:41:8f:f0:11:0a:56:ec:88:1b:32:
                    9e:05:62:e0:90:a3:e7
                ASN1 OID: secp384r1
                NIST CURVE: P-384
        X509v3 extensions:
            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
                F1:FA:61:75:0B:AC:3C:95:97:EF:73:3C:3F:38:22:B1:DB:D9:BF:41
            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
                keyid:F1:FA:61:75:0B:AC:3C:95:97:EF:73:3C:3F:38:22:B1:DB:D9:BF:41

            X509v3 Basic Constraints: critical
                CA:TRUE
            X509v3 Key Usage: critical
                Digital Signature, Certificate Sign, CRL Sign
    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA512
         30:64:02:30:53:b8:b6:5a:41:4b:4f:6a:d1:a6:76:88:df:13:
         d6:da:c7:48:aa:8b:aa:ff:13:6c:d1:00:53:90:92:b5:71:57:
         eb:d0:bf:3e:5d:2e:62:c0:3e:40:0f:64:25:a5:92:0f:02:30:
         15:0a:19:d5:a2:09:86:d8:9d:07:67:71:c3:84:f2:6b:90:20:
         2d:29:10:9e:4c:73:7a:55:56:4b:dc:fe:8d:3f:f0:9c:20:e1:
         5a:74:fb:41:86:ad:a4:66:61:74:d7:fd

Creare l’autorità di certificazione intermedia#

Continuiamo generando la chiave privata per l’autorità di certificazione intermedia direttamente sull’HSM Nitrokey. Questo ci permette di utilizzare la chiave privata in futuro, ma non di accedervi.

# Generate private key on HSM
$ pkcs11-tool -l --keypairgen --key-type EC:secp384r1 --label intermediate
Using slot 0 with a present token (0x0)
Logging in to "SmartCard-HSM (UserPIN)".
Please enter User PIN:
Key pair generated:
Private Key Object; EC
  label:      intermediate
  ID:         bcb48fe9b566ae61891aabbfde6a23d4ff3ab639
  Usage:      sign, derive
  Access:     none
Public Key Object; EC  EC_POINT 384 bits
  EC_POINT:   046104d0fb5c0cd10c0b6e4d0f6986755824b624ec9fcd8ff9ae5f0109fe6ff3ad887ca760717da894f3ff84dc8c24fe8c93b0cd840a6aa941bb2866c061cef60e47b893d71852b50d6762af10c951426e55ec8925a6cd83aeae1730311108afdbcdee
  EC_PARAMS:  06052b81040022
  label:      intermediate
  ID:         bcb48fe9b566ae61891aabbfde6a23d4ff3ab639
  Usage:      verify, derive
  Access:     none

Nota il numero ID (bcb48fe9b566ae61891aabbfde6a23d4ff3ab639), ci servirà più tardi.

Se hai bisogno dell’ID in futuro, puoi elencare le chiavi sul Nitrokey HSM:

pkcs11-tool -O

Dobbiamo creare un file di configurazione per generare un certificato pubblico autofirmato.

vim create_intermediate_csr.ini

Compilate le informazioni di richiesta in <parentesi angolari> con le informazioni per il vostro CA.

[ req ]
# Options for the `req` tool (`man req`).
default_bits        = 4096
distinguished_name  = req_distinguished_name
string_mask         = utf8only
prompt              = no

# SHA-1 is deprecated, so use SHA-2 instead.
[ v3_ca ]
# Extensions for a typical CA (`man x509v3_config`).
subjectKeyIdentifier = hash
authorityKeyIdentifier = keyid:always,issuer
basicConstraints = critical, CA:true
keyUsage = critical, digitalSignature, cRLSign, keyCertSign
default_md          = sha512

[ req_distinguished_name ]
C                   = <two lettter country>
ST                  = <full state name>
O                   = <your company>
OU                  = <your company> Certificate Authority
CN                  = <your company> Intermediate CA

Genera la richiesta di firma del certificato per la CA intermedia dalla chiave privata della CA intermedia. Usate il valore ID della chiave privata di prima.

$ openssl req -config create_intermediate_csr.ini -engine pkcs11 -keyform engine -key bcb48fe9b566ae61891aabbfde6a23d4ff3ab639 -new -sha512 -out ../intermediate/csr/intermediate.csr
engine "pkcs11" set.
Enter PKCS#11 token PIN for SmartCard-HSM (UserPIN):

Verificare che la CSR sia stata creata correttamente. Verificare che l’oggetto sia corretto. Verificare che la chiave pubblica e l’algoritmo di firma siano corretti.

$ openssl req -text -noout -verify -in ../intermediate/csr/intermediate.csr
verify OK
Certificate Request:
    Data:
        Version: 1 (0x0)
        Subject: C = US, ST = My State, O = My Company, OU = My Company Certificate Authority, CN = My Company Intermediate CA
        Subject Public Key Info:
            Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey
                Public-Key: (384 bit)
                pub:
                    04:d0:fb:5c:0c:d1:0c:0b:6e:4d:0f:69:86:75:58:
                    24:b6:24:ec:9f:cd:8f:f9:ae:5f:01:09:fe:6f:f3:
                    ad:88:7c:a7:60:71:7d:a8:94:f3:ff:84:dc:8c:24:
                    fe:8c:93:b0:cd:84:0a:6a:a9:41:bb:28:66:c0:61:
                    ce:f6:0e:47:b8:93:d7:18:52:b5:0d:67:62:af:10:
                    c9:51:42:6e:55:ec:89:25:a6:cd:83:ae:ae:17:30:
                    31:11:08:af:db:cd:ee
                ASN1 OID: secp384r1
                NIST CURVE: P-384
        Attributes:
            a0:00
    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA512
         30:64:02:30:6a:1d:75:8b:59:99:2c:a8:5d:a0:7f:02:7d:9a:
         aa:40:74:7a:65:20:03:6b:bc:65:fb:7d:d1:7f:5b:24:ae:6f:
         40:16:ac:82:0b:80:9b:81:f9:d9:64:ea:0f:41:4c:d7:02:30:
         4d:28:7f:e3:76:52:c7:10:e1:bd:b7:2e:ea:65:78:41:0c:96:
         50:5f:e9:1f:be:18:ac:14:ba:65:3f:b0:2a:f4:0f:d0:56:ab:
         d0:8c:bf:d0:92:9e:f6:e5:f6:8a:af:a5

Abbiamo bisogno di scoprire l’URI PKCS#11 pienamente qualificato per la vostra chiave privata:

$ p11tool --list-all
warning: no token URL was provided for this operation; the available tokens are:

pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00

$ p11tool --login --list-all pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00
Token 'SmartCard-HSM (UserPIN)' with URL 'pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00' requires user PIN
Enter PIN:
Object 0:
        URL: pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%E0%16%1C%C8%B6%F5%D6%6A%C6%83%5E%CD%EC%B6%23%FC%05%06%A6%75;object=root;type=private
        Type: Private key (EC/ECDSA-SECP384R1)
        Label: root
        Flags: CKA_PRIVATE; CKA_NEVER_EXTRACTABLE; CKA_SENSITIVE;
        ID: e0:16:1c:c8:b6:f5:d6:6a:c6:83:5e:cd:ec:b6:23:fc:05:06:a6:75

Object 1:
        URL: pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%E0%16%1C%C8%B6%F5%D6%6A%C6%83%5E%CD%EC%B6%23%FC%05%06%A6%75;object=root;type=public
        Type: Public key (EC/ECDSA-SECP384R1)
        Label: root
        ID: e0:16:1c:c8:b6:f5:d6:6a:c6:83:5e:cd:ec:b6:23:fc:05:06:a6:75

Object 2:
        URL: pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%BC%B4%8F%E9%B5%66%AE%61%89%1A%AB%BF%DE%6A%23%D4%FF%3A%B6%39;object=intermediate;type=private
        Type: Private key (EC/ECDSA-SECP384R1)
        Label: intermediate
        Flags: CKA_PRIVATE; CKA_NEVER_EXTRACTABLE; CKA_SENSITIVE;
        ID: bc:b4:8f:e9:b5:66:ae:61:89:1a:ab:bf:de:6a:23:d4:ff:3a:b6:39

Object 3:
        URL: pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%BC%B4%8F%E9%B5%66%AE%61%89%1A%AB%BF%DE%6A%23%D4%FF%3A%B6%39;object=intermediate;type=public
        Type: Public key (EC/ECDSA-SECP384R1)
        Label: intermediate
        ID: bc:b4:8f:e9:b5:66:ae:61:89:1a:ab:bf:de:6a:23:d4:ff:3a:b6:39

In questo caso, l’URI PKCS#11 completamente qualificato è:

pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%E0%16%1C%C8%B6%F5%D6%6A%C6%83%5E%CD%EC%B6%23%FC%05%06%A6%75;object=root;type=private

Ora, abbiamo bisogno di creare un file di configurazione per utilizzare la chiave privata del certificato root per firmare il csr del certificato intermedio.

vim sign_intermediate_csr.ini
[ ca ]
# `man ca`
default_ca = CA_default

[ CA_default ]
# Directory and file locations.
dir               = /opt/certificate-authority
certs             = $dir/certs
crl_dir           = $dir/crl
new_certs_dir     = $dir/newcerts
database          = $dir/index.txt
serial            = $dir/serial

# The root key and root certificate.
private_key       = pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%E0%16%1C%C8%B6%F5%D6%6A%C6%83%5E%CD%EC%B6%23%FC%05%06%A6%75;object=root;type=private
certificate       = ../certs/root.crt

# SHA-1 is deprecated, so use SHA-2 instead.
default_md        = sha512

name_opt          = ca_default
cert_opt          = ca_default
default_days      = 375
preserve          = no
policy            = policy_loose

[ policy_loose ]
# Allow the intermediate CA to sign a more diverse range of certificates.
# See the POLICY FORMAT section of the `ca` man page.
countryName             = optional
stateOrProvinceName     = optional
localityName            = optional
organizationName        = optional
organizationalUnitName  = optional
commonName              = supplied
emailAddress            = optional

[ v3_intermediate_ca ]
# Extensions for a typical intermediate CA (`man x509v3_config`).
subjectKeyIdentifier = hash
authorityKeyIdentifier = keyid:always,issuer
basicConstraints = critical, CA:true, pathlen:0
keyUsage = critical, digitalSignature, cRLSign, keyCertSign

Poi firmate il certificato intermedio con il certificato di root.

$ openssl ca -config sign_intermediate_csr.ini -engine pkcs11 -keyform engine -extensions v3_intermediate_ca -days 1825 -notext -md sha512 -create_serial -in ../intermediate/csr/intermediate.csr -out ../intermediate/certs/intermediate.crt
engine "pkcs11" set.
Using configuration from sign_intermediate_csr.ini
Enter PKCS#11 token PIN for SmartCard-HSM (UserPIN):
Check that the request matches the signature
Signature ok
Certificate Details:
        Serial Number:
            35:47:4d:05:12:cc:e1:a8:b6:bf:dd:3e:c8:29:7b:18:c0:a1:5c:68
        Validity
            Not Before: Aug 18 20:44:17 2020 GMT
            Not After : Aug 17 20:44:17 2025 GMT
        Subject:
            countryName               = US
            stateOrProvinceName       = My State
            organizationName          = My Company
            organizationalUnitName    = My Company Certificate Authority
            commonName                = My Company Intermediate CA
        X509v3 extensions:
            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
                1D:4F:E5:ED:11:42:9A:AC:25:E4:51:A3:42:67:97:39:A0:10:AE:82
            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
                keyid:F1:FA:61:75:0B:AC:3C:95:97:EF:73:3C:3F:38:22:B1:DB:D9:BF:41

            X509v3 Basic Constraints: critical
                CA:TRUE, pathlen:0
            X509v3 Key Usage: critical
                Digital Signature, Certificate Sign, CRL Sign
Certificate is to be certified until Aug 17 20:44:17 2025 GMT (1825 days)
Sign the certificate? [y/n]:y


1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y
Write out database with 1 new entries
Data Base Updated

Verificare che il certificato di root sia stato generato correttamente. Verificare che Issuer e Subject siano diversi e corretti. Verificare che il Key Usage corrisponda al file di configurazione. Verificare che l’algoritmo di firma sia corretto sopra e sotto.

$ openssl x509 -noout -text -in ../intermediate/certs/intermediate.crt
Certificate:
    Data:
        Version: 3 (0x2)
        Serial Number:
            35:47:4d:05:12:cc:e1:a8:b6:bf:dd:3e:c8:29:7b:18:c0:a1:5c:68
        Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA512
        Issuer: C = US, ST = My State, O = My Company, OU = My Company Certificate Authority, CN = My Company Root CA
        Validity
            Not Before: Aug 18 20:44:17 2020 GMT
            Not After : Aug 17 20:44:17 2025 GMT
        Subject: C = US, ST = My State, O = My Company, OU = My Company Certificate Authority, CN = My Company Intermediate CA
        Subject Public Key Info:
            Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey
                Public-Key: (384 bit)
                pub:
                    04:d0:fb:5c:0c:d1:0c:0b:6e:4d:0f:69:86:75:58:
                    24:b6:24:ec:9f:cd:8f:f9:ae:5f:01:09:fe:6f:f3:
                    ad:88:7c:a7:60:71:7d:a8:94:f3:ff:84:dc:8c:24:
                    fe:8c:93:b0:cd:84:0a:6a:a9:41:bb:28:66:c0:61:
                    ce:f6:0e:47:b8:93:d7:18:52:b5:0d:67:62:af:10:
                    c9:51:42:6e:55:ec:89:25:a6:cd:83:ae:ae:17:30:
                    31:11:08:af:db:cd:ee
                ASN1 OID: secp384r1
                NIST CURVE: P-384
        X509v3 extensions:
            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
                1D:4F:E5:ED:11:42:9A:AC:25:E4:51:A3:42:67:97:39:A0:10:AE:82
            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
                keyid:F1:FA:61:75:0B:AC:3C:95:97:EF:73:3C:3F:38:22:B1:DB:D9:BF:41

            X509v3 Basic Constraints: critical
                CA:TRUE, pathlen:0
            X509v3 Key Usage: critical
                Digital Signature, Certificate Sign, CRL Sign
    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA512
         30:66:02:31:00:9a:6e:08:d2:d6:3a:29:f6:ba:0c:4c:3a:f4:
         af:40:5e:e0:71:f2:bc:e4:47:f5:b4:ee:10:d7:27:b1:25:0b:
         4b:09:78:a1:b8:f2:b8:71:c5:4e:41:33:8e:64:db:ec:eb:02:
         31:00:fc:39:26:c2:ad:7b:3c:ab:75:06:34:02:47:79:40:31:
         1d:eb:17:ad:32:10:67:97:37:6f:7f:3c:ce:3e:12:3c:e9:7c:
         fa:43:3e:34:5d:5e:f4:f3:2f:fd:6a:2f:14:da

Verificate che il certificato intermedio si verifichi rispetto al certificato radice.

$ openssl verify -CAfile ../certs/root.crt ../intermediate/certs/intermediate.crt
../intermediate/certs/intermediate.crt: OK

Creare un file di catena del certificato:

cat ../intermediate/certs/intermediate.crt ../certs/root.crt > ../intermediate/certs/chain.crt

Ora avete un’autorità di certificazione supportata da un HSM.

Firmare un certificato del server#

Ora che avete un’autorità di certificazione, probabilmente vorrete sapere come usarla.

Create una CSR nel metodo normale per la vostra applicazione. La corretta creazione del vostro certificato, compresa la SAN, per la vostra particolare applicazione è al di fuori dello scopo di questo documento.

Abbiamo bisogno di scoprire l’URI PKCS#11 pienamente qualificato per la vostra chiave privata:

$ p11tool --list-all
warning: no token URL was provided for this operation; the available tokens are:

*pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00*

$ p11tool --login --list-all pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00
Token 'SmartCard-HSM (UserPIN)' with URL 'pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00' requires user PIN
Enter PIN:
Object 0:
        URL: pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%E0%16%1C%C8%B6%F5%D6%6A%C6%83%5E%CD%EC%B6%23%FC%05%06%A6%75;object=root;type=private
        Type: Private key (EC/ECDSA-SECP384R1)
        Label: root
        Flags: CKA_PRIVATE; CKA_NEVER_EXTRACTABLE; CKA_SENSITIVE;
        ID: e0:16:1c:c8:b6:f5:d6:6a:c6:83:5e:cd:ec:b6:23:fc:05:06:a6:75

Object 1:
        URL: pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%E0%16%1C%C8%B6%F5%D6%6A%C6%83%5E%CD%EC%B6%23%FC%05%06%A6%75;object=root;type=public
        Type: Public key (EC/ECDSA-SECP384R1)
        Label: root
        ID: e0:16:1c:c8:b6:f5:d6:6a:c6:83:5e:cd:ec:b6:23:fc:05:06:a6:75

Object 2:
        URL: pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%BC%B4%8F%E9%B5%66%AE%61%89%1A%AB%BF%DE%6A%23%D4%FF%3A%B6%39;object=intermediate;type=private
        Type: Private key (EC/ECDSA-SECP384R1)
        Label: intermediate
        Flags: CKA_PRIVATE; CKA_NEVER_EXTRACTABLE; CKA_SENSITIVE;
        ID: bc:b4:8f:e9:b5:66:ae:61:89:1a:ab:bf:de:6a:23:d4:ff:3a:b6:39

Object 3:
        URL: pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%BC%B4%8F%E9%B5%66%AE%61%89%1A%AB%BF%DE%6A%23%D4%FF%3A%B6%39;object=intermediate;type=public
        Type: Public key (EC/ECDSA-SECP384R1)
        Label: intermediate
        ID: bc:b4:8f:e9:b5:66:ae:61:89:1a:ab:bf:de:6a:23:d4:ff:3a:b6:39

In questo caso, l’URI PKCS#11 completamente qualificato è:

pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%BC%B4%8F%E9%B5%66%AE%61%89%1A%AB%BF%DE%6A%23%D4%FF%3A%B6%39;object=intermediate;type=private

Create un file di configurazione per utilizzare la chiave privata del certificato intermedio per firmare le CSR dei vostri server.

vim sign_server_csrs.ini
[ ca ]
# `man ca`
default_ca = CA_default

[ CA_default ]
# Directory and file locations.
dir               = /opt/certificate-authority/intermediate
certs             = $dir/certs
crl_dir           = $dir/crl
new_certs_dir     = $dir/newcerts
database          = $dir/index.txt
serial            = $dir/serial

# The root key and root certificate.
private_key       = pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%BC%B4%8F%E9%B5%66%AE%61%89%1A%AB%BF%DE%6A%23%D4%FF%3A%B6%39;object=intermediate;type=private
certificate       = $dir/certs/intermediate.crt

# SHA-1 is deprecated, so use SHA-2 instead.
default_md        = sha512

name_opt          = ca_default
cert_opt          = ca_default
default_days      = 375
preserve          = no
policy            = policy_loose

[ policy_loose ]
# Allow the intermediate CA to sign a more diverse range of certificates.
# See the POLICY FORMAT section of the `ca` man page.
countryName             = optional
stateOrProvinceName     = optional
localityName            = optional
organizationName        = optional
organizationalUnitName  = optional
commonName              = supplied
emailAddress            = optional

[ server_cert ]
# Extensions for server certificates (`man x509v3_config`).
basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
nsCertType = server
nsComment = "OpenSSL Generated Server Certificate"
subjectKeyIdentifier = hash
authorityKeyIdentifier = keyid,issuer:always
keyUsage = critical, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
extendedKeyUsage = serverAuth

Poi eseguite openssl per firmare la CSR del server.

$ openssl ca -config sign_server_csrs.ini -engine pkcs11 -keyform engine -extensions server_cert -days 375 -notext -md sha512 -create_serial -in server_cert.csr -out server_cert.crt
engine "pkcs11" set.
Using configuration from sign_server_csrs.ini
Enter PKCS#11 token PIN for SmartCard-HSM (UserPIN):
Check that the request matches the signature
Signature ok
Certificate Details:
        Serial Number:
            40:7f:dc:90:b0:3a:1b:fb:d3:e2:74:8d:40:28:a8:12:f7:7e:c3:74
        Validity
            Not Before: Aug 18 21:32:42 2020 GMT
            Not After : Aug 28 21:32:42 2021 GMT
        Subject:
            countryName               = US
            stateOrProvinceName       = My State
            organizationName          = My Company
            organizationalUnitName    = media
            commonName                = media
        X509v3 extensions:
            X509v3 Basic Constraints:
                CA:FALSE
            Netscape Cert Type:
                SSL Server
            Netscape Comment:
                OpenSSL Generated Server Certificate
            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
                26:89:19:95:6C:93:8C:DD:6E:AA:61:D5:C0:E6:78:CC:F1:47:64:FC
            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
                keyid:1D:4F:E5:ED:11:42:9A:AC:25:E4:51:A3:42:67:97:39:A0:10:AE:82
                DirName:/C=US/ST=My State/O=My Company/OU=My Company Certificate Authority/CN=My Company Root CA
                serial:35:47:4D:05:12:CC:E1:A8:B6:BF:DD:3E:C8:29:7B:18:C0:A1:5C:68

            X509v3 Key Usage: critical
                Digital Signature, Key Encipherment
            X509v3 Extended Key Usage:
                TLS Web Server Authentication
Certificate is to be certified until Aug 28 21:32:42 2021 GMT (375 days)
Sign the certificate? [y/n]:y


1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y
Write out database with 1 new entries
Data Base Updated

Riferimenti#

Ho usato le seguenti risorse per aiutare nella compilazione di questo documento.

Questo documento è stato originariamente ` scritto da lyntux <https://gist.github.com/lyntux/f02c6c3414ce48bc8ea8ab6dcdba1623>`_