Vytvorenie certifikačnej autority#

(Nitrokey HSM 2 - Windows)

V tomto článku sa dozviete, ako nastaviť vlastnú autoritu súkromných certifikátov podporovanú zariadením Nitrokey HSM. Táto certifikačná autorita nemá žiadnu automatizáciu a nie je v skutočnosti škálovateľná. V prípade automatizácie a škálovateľnosti sa môžete odvolať na iné open source projekty.

Výber kryptografických algoritmov#

Budem predpokladať, že ste rovnako paranoidní ako ja, takže na generovanie súkromných kľúčov použijem nasledujúci príkaz:

pkcs11-tool -l --keypairgen --key-type EC:secp384r1 --label root

Ak ste však menej paranoidní ako ja, môžete si pokojne vybrať nasledujúce možnosti:

pkcs11-tool -l --keypairgen --key-type EC:secp256r1 --label root
pkcs11-tool -l --keypairgen --key-type rsa:4096 --label root

Podobne budem v tomto článku používať algoritmus sha512, ale pokojne možno použiť aj sha256.

Príprava na spustenie#

Na začiatku je potrebné vybrať adresár na uloženie CA.

pki_dir=/opt/certificate-authority
mkdir $pki_dir
cd $pki_dir
mkdir certs config crl newcerts intermediate intermediate/certs intermediate/crl intermediate/csr intermediate/newcerts
touch index.txt intermediate/index.txt
cd config

Nainštalujte potrebné nástroje:

# Arch Linux
pacman -S community/opensc community/libp11

# Ubuntu
sudo apt-get install opensc gnutls-bin

Pre Windows si stiahnite oficiálne Vydanie OpenSC a uistite sa, že ste nainštalovali p11tool podľa popisu. Pomocou PowerShellu by mala byť väčšina príkazov identická, pokiaľ sa oba nástroje a ich binárne súbory nachádzajú vo vašom PATH.

Vytvorenie koreňovej certifikačnej autority#

Začneme vygenerovaním súkromného kľúča pre certifikačnú autoritu priamo v HSM Nitrokey. To nám umožní súkromný kľúč v budúcnosti používať, ale nie pristupovať k nemu.

# Generate private key on HSM
$ pkcs11-tool -l --keypairgen --key-type EC:secp384r1 --label root
Using slot 0 with a present token (0x0)
Logging in to "SmartCard-HSM (UserPIN)".
Please enter User PIN:
Key pair generated:
Private Key Object; EC
  label:      root
  ID:         e0161cc8b6f5d66ac6835ecdecb623fc0506a675
  Usage:      sign, derive
  Access:     none
Public Key Object; EC  EC_POINT 384 bits
  EC_POINT:   046104c1e7b40e1ef9e5d47399aeeda695026c9eb626462059eb696e8f2b647b42d64ac3b7fc7a5b31aa3edf9bce46b2cdcf8e5d190b13601d3d14ffb119c8cf60033c6b78ba579b85113ca536eef1cf85ba418ff0110a56ec881b329e0562e090a3e7
  EC_PARAMS:  06052b81040022
  label:      root
  ID:         e0161cc8b6f5d66ac6835ecdecb623fc0506a675
  Usage:      verify, derive
  Access:     none

Všimnite si identifikačné číslo (e0161cc8b6f5d66ac6835ecdecb623fc0506a675), budeme ho potrebovať neskôr.

Ak budete v budúcnosti potrebovať identifikátor, môžete kľúče uviesť v systéme Nitrokey HSM:

pkcs11-tool -O

Musíme vytvoriť konfiguračný súbor na generovanie vlastného verejného certifikátu.

vim create_root_cert.ini

Vyplňte informácie o žiadosti v uhlových zátvorkách s informáciami o vašom CA.

[ ca ]
# `man ca`
default_ca = CA_default

[ CA_default ]
# Directory and file locations.
dir               = /opt/certificate-authority
certs             = $dir/certs
crl_dir           = $dir/crl
new_certs_dir     = $dir/newcerts
database          = $dir/index.txt
serial            = $dir/serial

# SHA-1 is deprecated, so use SHA-2 instead.
default_md        = sha512

name_opt          = ca_default
cert_opt          = ca_default
default_days      = 375
preserve          = no
policy            = policy_strict

[ policy_strict ]
# The root CA should only sign intermediate certificates that match.
# See the POLICY FORMAT section of `man ca`.
countryName             = match
stateOrProvinceName     = match
organizationName        = match
organizationalUnitName  = optional
commonName              = supplied
emailAddress            = optional

[ req ]
# Options for the `req` tool (`man req`).
default_bits        = 4096
distinguished_name  = req_distinguished_name
string_mask         = utf8only
prompt              = no

# SHA-1 is deprecated, so use SHA-2 instead.
default_md          = sha512

[ req_distinguished_name ]
C                   = <two lettter country>
ST                  = <full state name>
O                   = <your company>
OU                  = <your company> Certificate Authority
CN                  = <your company> Root CA

[ v3_ca ]
# Extensions for a typical CA (`man x509v3_config`).
subjectKeyIdentifier = hash
authorityKeyIdentifier = keyid:always,issuer
basicConstraints = critical, CA:true
keyUsage = critical, digitalSignature, cRLSign, keyCertSign

Generovanie vlastného verejného certifikátu zo súkromného kľúča. Použite identifikačnú hodnotu súkromného kľúča z predchádzajúcej časti.

$ openssl req -config create_root_cert.ini -engine pkcs11 -keyform engine -key e0161cc8b6f5d66ac6835ecdecb623fc0506a675 -new -x509 -days 3650 -sha512 -extensions v3_ca -out ../certs/root.crt
engine "pkcs11" set.
Enter PKCS#11 token PIN for SmartCard-HSM (UserPIN):

Overte, či bol koreňový certifikát vygenerovaný správne. Overte, či sa podpisový algoritmus zhoduje s vyššie uvedenými údajmi. Overte, či sa zhoduje Issuer a Subject, všetky koreňové certifikáty sú podpísané samopodpisom. Overte, či sa Key Usage zhoduje s tým, čo bolo v informáciách v3_ca v našom konfiguračnom súbore.

$ openssl x509 -noout -text -in ../certs/root.crt
Certificate:
    Data:
        Version: 3 (0x2)
        Serial Number:
            25:ac:e1:36:75:67:26:1d:bb:96:4b:84:c2:2d:83:25:7b:cc:e0:e5
        Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA512
        Issuer: C = US, ST = My State, O = My Company, OU = My Company Certificate Authority, CN = My Company Root CA
        Validity
            Not Before: Aug 18 20:13:20 2020 GMT
            Not After : Aug 16 20:13:20 2030 GMT
        Subject: C = US, ST = My State, O = My Company, OU = My Company Certificate Authority, CN = My Company Root CA
        Subject Public Key Info:
            Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey
                Public-Key: (384 bit)
                pub:
                    04:c1:e7:b4:0e:1e:f9:e5:d4:73:99:ae:ed:a6:95:
                    02:6c:9e:b6:26:46:20:59:eb:69:6e:8f:2b:64:7b:
                    42:d6:4a:c3:b7:fc:7a:5b:31:aa:3e:df:9b:ce:46:
                    b2:cd:cf:8e:5d:19:0b:13:60:1d:3d:14:ff:b1:19:
                    c8:cf:60:03:3c:6b:78:ba:57:9b:85:11:3c:a5:36:
                    ee:f1:cf:85:ba:41:8f:f0:11:0a:56:ec:88:1b:32:
                    9e:05:62:e0:90:a3:e7
                ASN1 OID: secp384r1
                NIST CURVE: P-384
        X509v3 extensions:
            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
                F1:FA:61:75:0B:AC:3C:95:97:EF:73:3C:3F:38:22:B1:DB:D9:BF:41
            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
                keyid:F1:FA:61:75:0B:AC:3C:95:97:EF:73:3C:3F:38:22:B1:DB:D9:BF:41

            X509v3 Basic Constraints: critical
                CA:TRUE
            X509v3 Key Usage: critical
                Digital Signature, Certificate Sign, CRL Sign
    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA512
         30:64:02:30:53:b8:b6:5a:41:4b:4f:6a:d1:a6:76:88:df:13:
         d6:da:c7:48:aa:8b:aa:ff:13:6c:d1:00:53:90:92:b5:71:57:
         eb:d0:bf:3e:5d:2e:62:c0:3e:40:0f:64:25:a5:92:0f:02:30:
         15:0a:19:d5:a2:09:86:d8:9d:07:67:71:c3:84:f2:6b:90:20:
         2d:29:10:9e:4c:73:7a:55:56:4b:dc:fe:8d:3f:f0:9c:20:e1:
         5a:74:fb:41:86:ad:a4:66:61:74:d7:fd

Vytvorenie sprostredkujúcej certifikačnej autority#

Pokračujeme vygenerovaním súkromného kľúča pre sprostredkovateľskú certifikačnú autoritu priamo na HSM Nitrokey. To nám umožní súkromný kľúč v budúcnosti používať, ale nie pristupovať k nemu.

# Generate private key on HSM
$ pkcs11-tool -l --keypairgen --key-type EC:secp384r1 --label intermediate
Using slot 0 with a present token (0x0)
Logging in to "SmartCard-HSM (UserPIN)".
Please enter User PIN:
Key pair generated:
Private Key Object; EC
  label:      intermediate
  ID:         bcb48fe9b566ae61891aabbfde6a23d4ff3ab639
  Usage:      sign, derive
  Access:     none
Public Key Object; EC  EC_POINT 384 bits
  EC_POINT:   046104d0fb5c0cd10c0b6e4d0f6986755824b624ec9fcd8ff9ae5f0109fe6ff3ad887ca760717da894f3ff84dc8c24fe8c93b0cd840a6aa941bb2866c061cef60e47b893d71852b50d6762af10c951426e55ec8925a6cd83aeae1730311108afdbcdee
  EC_PARAMS:  06052b81040022
  label:      intermediate
  ID:         bcb48fe9b566ae61891aabbfde6a23d4ff3ab639
  Usage:      verify, derive
  Access:     none

Všimnite si identifikačné číslo (bcb48fe9b566ae61891aabbfde6a23d4ff3ab639), budeme ho potrebovať neskôr.

Ak budete v budúcnosti potrebovať identifikátor, môžete kľúče uviesť v systéme Nitrokey HSM:

pkcs11-tool -O

Musíme vytvoriť konfiguračný súbor na generovanie vlastného verejného certifikátu.

vim create_intermediate_csr.ini

Vyplňte informácie o žiadosti v uhlových zátvorkách s informáciami o vašom CA.

[ req ]
# Options for the `req` tool (`man req`).
default_bits        = 4096
distinguished_name  = req_distinguished_name
string_mask         = utf8only
prompt              = no

# SHA-1 is deprecated, so use SHA-2 instead.
[ v3_ca ]
# Extensions for a typical CA (`man x509v3_config`).
subjectKeyIdentifier = hash
authorityKeyIdentifier = keyid:always,issuer
basicConstraints = critical, CA:true
keyUsage = critical, digitalSignature, cRLSign, keyCertSign
default_md          = sha512

[ req_distinguished_name ]
C                   = <two lettter country>
ST                  = <full state name>
O                   = <your company>
OU                  = <your company> Certificate Authority
CN                  = <your company> Intermediate CA

Generovanie žiadosti o podpísanie certifikátu pre sprostredkujúcu certifikačnú autoritu zo súkromného kľúča sprostredkujúcej certifikačnej autority. Použite hodnotu ID súkromného kľúča z predchádzajúcej časti.

$ openssl req -config create_intermediate_csr.ini -engine pkcs11 -keyform engine -key bcb48fe9b566ae61891aabbfde6a23d4ff3ab639 -new -sha512 -out ../intermediate/csr/intermediate.csr
engine "pkcs11" set.
Enter PKCS#11 token PIN for SmartCard-HSM (UserPIN):

Skontrolujte, či bol CSR vytvorený správne. Skontrolujte, či je váš subjekt správny. Overte, či sú váš verejný kľúč a podpisový algoritmus správne.

$ openssl req -text -noout -verify -in ../intermediate/csr/intermediate.csr
verify OK
Certificate Request:
    Data:
        Version: 1 (0x0)
        Subject: C = US, ST = My State, O = My Company, OU = My Company Certificate Authority, CN = My Company Intermediate CA
        Subject Public Key Info:
            Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey
                Public-Key: (384 bit)
                pub:
                    04:d0:fb:5c:0c:d1:0c:0b:6e:4d:0f:69:86:75:58:
                    24:b6:24:ec:9f:cd:8f:f9:ae:5f:01:09:fe:6f:f3:
                    ad:88:7c:a7:60:71:7d:a8:94:f3:ff:84:dc:8c:24:
                    fe:8c:93:b0:cd:84:0a:6a:a9:41:bb:28:66:c0:61:
                    ce:f6:0e:47:b8:93:d7:18:52:b5:0d:67:62:af:10:
                    c9:51:42:6e:55:ec:89:25:a6:cd:83:ae:ae:17:30:
                    31:11:08:af:db:cd:ee
                ASN1 OID: secp384r1
                NIST CURVE: P-384
        Attributes:
            a0:00
    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA512
         30:64:02:30:6a:1d:75:8b:59:99:2c:a8:5d:a0:7f:02:7d:9a:
         aa:40:74:7a:65:20:03:6b:bc:65:fb:7d:d1:7f:5b:24:ae:6f:
         40:16:ac:82:0b:80:9b:81:f9:d9:64:ea:0f:41:4c:d7:02:30:
         4d:28:7f:e3:76:52:c7:10:e1:bd:b7:2e:ea:65:78:41:0c:96:
         50:5f:e9:1f:be:18:ac:14:ba:65:3f:b0:2a:f4:0f:d0:56:ab:
         d0:8c:bf:d0:92:9e:f6:e5:f6:8a:af:a5

Potrebujeme zistiť plne kvalifikovaný URI PKCS#11 pre váš súkromný kľúč:

$ p11tool --list-all
warning: no token URL was provided for this operation; the available tokens are:

pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00

$ p11tool --login --list-all pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00
Token 'SmartCard-HSM (UserPIN)' with URL 'pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00' requires user PIN
Enter PIN:
Object 0:
        URL: pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%E0%16%1C%C8%B6%F5%D6%6A%C6%83%5E%CD%EC%B6%23%FC%05%06%A6%75;object=root;type=private
        Type: Private key (EC/ECDSA-SECP384R1)
        Label: root
        Flags: CKA_PRIVATE; CKA_NEVER_EXTRACTABLE; CKA_SENSITIVE;
        ID: e0:16:1c:c8:b6:f5:d6:6a:c6:83:5e:cd:ec:b6:23:fc:05:06:a6:75

Object 1:
        URL: pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%E0%16%1C%C8%B6%F5%D6%6A%C6%83%5E%CD%EC%B6%23%FC%05%06%A6%75;object=root;type=public
        Type: Public key (EC/ECDSA-SECP384R1)
        Label: root
        ID: e0:16:1c:c8:b6:f5:d6:6a:c6:83:5e:cd:ec:b6:23:fc:05:06:a6:75

Object 2:
        URL: pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%BC%B4%8F%E9%B5%66%AE%61%89%1A%AB%BF%DE%6A%23%D4%FF%3A%B6%39;object=intermediate;type=private
        Type: Private key (EC/ECDSA-SECP384R1)
        Label: intermediate
        Flags: CKA_PRIVATE; CKA_NEVER_EXTRACTABLE; CKA_SENSITIVE;
        ID: bc:b4:8f:e9:b5:66:ae:61:89:1a:ab:bf:de:6a:23:d4:ff:3a:b6:39

Object 3:
        URL: pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%BC%B4%8F%E9%B5%66%AE%61%89%1A%AB%BF%DE%6A%23%D4%FF%3A%B6%39;object=intermediate;type=public
        Type: Public key (EC/ECDSA-SECP384R1)
        Label: intermediate
        ID: bc:b4:8f:e9:b5:66:ae:61:89:1a:ab:bf:de:6a:23:d4:ff:3a:b6:39

V tomto prípade je plne kvalifikovaný URI PKCS#11:

pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%E0%16%1C%C8%B6%F5%D6%6A%C6%83%5E%CD%EC%B6%23%FC%05%06%A6%75;object=root;type=private

Teraz musíme vytvoriť konfiguračný súbor na použitie súkromného kľúča koreňového certifikátu na podpísanie csr sprostredkovateľského certifikátu.

vim sign_intermediate_csr.ini
[ ca ]
# `man ca`
default_ca = CA_default

[ CA_default ]
# Directory and file locations.
dir               = /opt/certificate-authority
certs             = $dir/certs
crl_dir           = $dir/crl
new_certs_dir     = $dir/newcerts
database          = $dir/index.txt
serial            = $dir/serial

# The root key and root certificate.
private_key       = pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%E0%16%1C%C8%B6%F5%D6%6A%C6%83%5E%CD%EC%B6%23%FC%05%06%A6%75;object=root;type=private
certificate       = ../certs/root.crt

# SHA-1 is deprecated, so use SHA-2 instead.
default_md        = sha512

name_opt          = ca_default
cert_opt          = ca_default
default_days      = 375
preserve          = no
policy            = policy_loose

[ policy_loose ]
# Allow the intermediate CA to sign a more diverse range of certificates.
# See the POLICY FORMAT section of the `ca` man page.
countryName             = optional
stateOrProvinceName     = optional
localityName            = optional
organizationName        = optional
organizationalUnitName  = optional
commonName              = supplied
emailAddress            = optional

[ v3_intermediate_ca ]
# Extensions for a typical intermediate CA (`man x509v3_config`).
subjectKeyIdentifier = hash
authorityKeyIdentifier = keyid:always,issuer
basicConstraints = critical, CA:true, pathlen:0
keyUsage = critical, digitalSignature, cRLSign, keyCertSign

Potom podpíšte sprostredkovateľský certifikát koreňovým certifikátom.

$ openssl ca -config sign_intermediate_csr.ini -engine pkcs11 -keyform engine -extensions v3_intermediate_ca -days 1825 -notext -md sha512 -create_serial -in ../intermediate/csr/intermediate.csr -out ../intermediate/certs/intermediate.crt
engine "pkcs11" set.
Using configuration from sign_intermediate_csr.ini
Enter PKCS#11 token PIN for SmartCard-HSM (UserPIN):
Check that the request matches the signature
Signature ok
Certificate Details:
        Serial Number:
            35:47:4d:05:12:cc:e1:a8:b6:bf:dd:3e:c8:29:7b:18:c0:a1:5c:68
        Validity
            Not Before: Aug 18 20:44:17 2020 GMT
            Not After : Aug 17 20:44:17 2025 GMT
        Subject:
            countryName               = US
            stateOrProvinceName       = My State
            organizationName          = My Company
            organizationalUnitName    = My Company Certificate Authority
            commonName                = My Company Intermediate CA
        X509v3 extensions:
            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
                1D:4F:E5:ED:11:42:9A:AC:25:E4:51:A3:42:67:97:39:A0:10:AE:82
            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
                keyid:F1:FA:61:75:0B:AC:3C:95:97:EF:73:3C:3F:38:22:B1:DB:D9:BF:41

            X509v3 Basic Constraints: critical
                CA:TRUE, pathlen:0
            X509v3 Key Usage: critical
                Digital Signature, Certificate Sign, CRL Sign
Certificate is to be certified until Aug 17 20:44:17 2025 GMT (1825 days)
Sign the certificate? [y/n]:y


1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y
Write out database with 1 new entries
Data Base Updated

Overte, či bol koreňový certifikát vygenerovaný správne. Overte, či sú údaje Issuer a Subject odlišné a správne. Overte, či sa Používanie kľúča zhoduje s konfiguračným súborom. Overte, či sú algoritmy podpisu správne vyššie aj nižšie.

$ openssl x509 -noout -text -in ../intermediate/certs/intermediate.crt
Certificate:
    Data:
        Version: 3 (0x2)
        Serial Number:
            35:47:4d:05:12:cc:e1:a8:b6:bf:dd:3e:c8:29:7b:18:c0:a1:5c:68
        Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA512
        Issuer: C = US, ST = My State, O = My Company, OU = My Company Certificate Authority, CN = My Company Root CA
        Validity
            Not Before: Aug 18 20:44:17 2020 GMT
            Not After : Aug 17 20:44:17 2025 GMT
        Subject: C = US, ST = My State, O = My Company, OU = My Company Certificate Authority, CN = My Company Intermediate CA
        Subject Public Key Info:
            Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey
                Public-Key: (384 bit)
                pub:
                    04:d0:fb:5c:0c:d1:0c:0b:6e:4d:0f:69:86:75:58:
                    24:b6:24:ec:9f:cd:8f:f9:ae:5f:01:09:fe:6f:f3:
                    ad:88:7c:a7:60:71:7d:a8:94:f3:ff:84:dc:8c:24:
                    fe:8c:93:b0:cd:84:0a:6a:a9:41:bb:28:66:c0:61:
                    ce:f6:0e:47:b8:93:d7:18:52:b5:0d:67:62:af:10:
                    c9:51:42:6e:55:ec:89:25:a6:cd:83:ae:ae:17:30:
                    31:11:08:af:db:cd:ee
                ASN1 OID: secp384r1
                NIST CURVE: P-384
        X509v3 extensions:
            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
                1D:4F:E5:ED:11:42:9A:AC:25:E4:51:A3:42:67:97:39:A0:10:AE:82
            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
                keyid:F1:FA:61:75:0B:AC:3C:95:97:EF:73:3C:3F:38:22:B1:DB:D9:BF:41

            X509v3 Basic Constraints: critical
                CA:TRUE, pathlen:0
            X509v3 Key Usage: critical
                Digital Signature, Certificate Sign, CRL Sign
    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA512
         30:66:02:31:00:9a:6e:08:d2:d6:3a:29:f6:ba:0c:4c:3a:f4:
         af:40:5e:e0:71:f2:bc:e4:47:f5:b4:ee:10:d7:27:b1:25:0b:
         4b:09:78:a1:b8:f2:b8:71:c5:4e:41:33:8e:64:db:ec:eb:02:
         31:00:fc:39:26:c2:ad:7b:3c:ab:75:06:34:02:47:79:40:31:
         1d:eb:17:ad:32:10:67:97:37:6f:7f:3c:ce:3e:12:3c:e9:7c:
         fa:43:3e:34:5d:5e:f4:f3:2f:fd:6a:2f:14:da

Overte, či sa sprostredkovateľský certifikát overuje podľa koreňového certifikátu.

$ openssl verify -CAfile ../certs/root.crt ../intermediate/certs/intermediate.crt
../intermediate/certs/intermediate.crt: OK

Vytvorenie súboru reťazca certifikátov:

cat ../intermediate/certs/intermediate.crt ../certs/root.crt > ../intermediate/certs/chain.crt

Teraz máte k dispozícii certifikačnú autoritu podporenú HSM.

Podpísať certifikát servera#

Teraz, keď máte autoritu certifikátov, by ste pravdepodobne chceli vedieť, ako ju používať.

Vytvorte CSR bežným spôsobom pre vašu aplikáciu. Správne vytvorenie certifikátu vrátane SAN pre vašu konkrétnu aplikáciu je mimo rozsahu tohto dokumentu.

Potrebujeme zistiť plne kvalifikovaný URI PKCS#11 pre váš súkromný kľúč:

$ p11tool --list-all
warning: no token URL was provided for this operation; the available tokens are:

*pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00*

$ p11tool --login --list-all pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00
Token 'SmartCard-HSM (UserPIN)' with URL 'pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00' requires user PIN
Enter PIN:
Object 0:
        URL: pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%E0%16%1C%C8%B6%F5%D6%6A%C6%83%5E%CD%EC%B6%23%FC%05%06%A6%75;object=root;type=private
        Type: Private key (EC/ECDSA-SECP384R1)
        Label: root
        Flags: CKA_PRIVATE; CKA_NEVER_EXTRACTABLE; CKA_SENSITIVE;
        ID: e0:16:1c:c8:b6:f5:d6:6a:c6:83:5e:cd:ec:b6:23:fc:05:06:a6:75

Object 1:
        URL: pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%E0%16%1C%C8%B6%F5%D6%6A%C6%83%5E%CD%EC%B6%23%FC%05%06%A6%75;object=root;type=public
        Type: Public key (EC/ECDSA-SECP384R1)
        Label: root
        ID: e0:16:1c:c8:b6:f5:d6:6a:c6:83:5e:cd:ec:b6:23:fc:05:06:a6:75

Object 2:
        URL: pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%BC%B4%8F%E9%B5%66%AE%61%89%1A%AB%BF%DE%6A%23%D4%FF%3A%B6%39;object=intermediate;type=private
        Type: Private key (EC/ECDSA-SECP384R1)
        Label: intermediate
        Flags: CKA_PRIVATE; CKA_NEVER_EXTRACTABLE; CKA_SENSITIVE;
        ID: bc:b4:8f:e9:b5:66:ae:61:89:1a:ab:bf:de:6a:23:d4:ff:3a:b6:39

Object 3:
        URL: pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%BC%B4%8F%E9%B5%66%AE%61%89%1A%AB%BF%DE%6A%23%D4%FF%3A%B6%39;object=intermediate;type=public
        Type: Public key (EC/ECDSA-SECP384R1)
        Label: intermediate
        ID: bc:b4:8f:e9:b5:66:ae:61:89:1a:ab:bf:de:6a:23:d4:ff:3a:b6:39

V tomto prípade je plne kvalifikovaný URI PKCS#11:

pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%BC%B4%8F%E9%B5%66%AE%61%89%1A%AB%BF%DE%6A%23%D4%FF%3A%B6%39;object=intermediate;type=private

Vytvorte konfiguračný súbor na použitie súkromného kľúča sprostredkovateľského certifikátu na podpisovanie CSR vašich serverov.

vim sign_server_csrs.ini
[ ca ]
# `man ca`
default_ca = CA_default

[ CA_default ]
# Directory and file locations.
dir               = /opt/certificate-authority/intermediate
certs             = $dir/certs
crl_dir           = $dir/crl
new_certs_dir     = $dir/newcerts
database          = $dir/index.txt
serial            = $dir/serial

# The root key and root certificate.
private_key       = pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;manufacturer=www.CardContact.de;serial=DENK0104068;token=SmartCard-HSM%20%28UserPIN%29%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00;id=%BC%B4%8F%E9%B5%66%AE%61%89%1A%AB%BF%DE%6A%23%D4%FF%3A%B6%39;object=intermediate;type=private
certificate       = $dir/certs/intermediate.crt

# SHA-1 is deprecated, so use SHA-2 instead.
default_md        = sha512

name_opt          = ca_default
cert_opt          = ca_default
default_days      = 375
preserve          = no
policy            = policy_loose

[ policy_loose ]
# Allow the intermediate CA to sign a more diverse range of certificates.
# See the POLICY FORMAT section of the `ca` man page.
countryName             = optional
stateOrProvinceName     = optional
localityName            = optional
organizationName        = optional
organizationalUnitName  = optional
commonName              = supplied
emailAddress            = optional

[ server_cert ]
# Extensions for server certificates (`man x509v3_config`).
basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
nsCertType = server
nsComment = "OpenSSL Generated Server Certificate"
subjectKeyIdentifier = hash
authorityKeyIdentifier = keyid,issuer:always
keyUsage = critical, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
extendedKeyUsage = serverAuth

Potom spustite openssl na podpísanie CSR servera.

$ openssl ca -config sign_server_csrs.ini -engine pkcs11 -keyform engine -extensions server_cert -days 375 -notext -md sha512 -create_serial -in server_cert.csr -out server_cert.crt
engine "pkcs11" set.
Using configuration from sign_server_csrs.ini
Enter PKCS#11 token PIN for SmartCard-HSM (UserPIN):
Check that the request matches the signature
Signature ok
Certificate Details:
        Serial Number:
            40:7f:dc:90:b0:3a:1b:fb:d3:e2:74:8d:40:28:a8:12:f7:7e:c3:74
        Validity
            Not Before: Aug 18 21:32:42 2020 GMT
            Not After : Aug 28 21:32:42 2021 GMT
        Subject:
            countryName               = US
            stateOrProvinceName       = My State
            organizationName          = My Company
            organizationalUnitName    = media
            commonName                = media
        X509v3 extensions:
            X509v3 Basic Constraints:
                CA:FALSE
            Netscape Cert Type:
                SSL Server
            Netscape Comment:
                OpenSSL Generated Server Certificate
            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
                26:89:19:95:6C:93:8C:DD:6E:AA:61:D5:C0:E6:78:CC:F1:47:64:FC
            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
                keyid:1D:4F:E5:ED:11:42:9A:AC:25:E4:51:A3:42:67:97:39:A0:10:AE:82
                DirName:/C=US/ST=My State/O=My Company/OU=My Company Certificate Authority/CN=My Company Root CA
                serial:35:47:4D:05:12:CC:E1:A8:B6:BF:DD:3E:C8:29:7B:18:C0:A1:5C:68

            X509v3 Key Usage: critical
                Digital Signature, Key Encipherment
            X509v3 Extended Key Usage:
                TLS Web Server Authentication
Certificate is to be certified until Aug 28 21:32:42 2021 GMT (375 days)
Sign the certificate? [y/n]:y


1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y
Write out database with 1 new entries
Data Base Updated